Dot Product Calculator

  • Enter vectors A and B, and select the operation.
  • Click "Calculate" to perform the calculation.
  • View the result, calculation details, and history below.
  • Click "Clear" to reset the inputs and results.
  • Click "Copy" to copy the result to the clipboard.


Calculation Details:

Calculation History:

    The dot product, also known as the scalar product or the inner product, is a fundamental operation in vector algebra. It combines two vectors of the same dimension into a single scalar value. The dot product is widely used in various fields, including physics, engineering, computer graphics, and machine learning. Dot product calculators are valuable tools that simplify these calculations and ensure accuracy.

    Concepts and Formulae

    The dot product calculates the magnitude of the projection of one vector onto another vector. In other words, it determines how much one vector aligns with the direction of the other vector. The dot product is calculated using the following formula:

    Dot Product = (x₁, y₁, z₁) · (x₂, y₂, z₂) = x₁x₂ + y₁y₂ + z₁z₂


    • (x₁, y₁, z₁) and (x₂, y₂, z₂) represent the two vectors

    The dot product is commutative, meaning that the order of the vectors does not affect the result. Mathematically, this can be expressed as:

    (x₁, y₁, z₁) · (x₂, y₂, z₂) = (x₂, y₂, z₂) · (x₁, y₁, z₁)

    The dot product is also distributive over addition, meaning that the dot product of the sum of two vectors with a third vector is equal to the sum of the dot products of the individual vectors with the third vector. This can be expressed as:

    (x₁, y₁, z₁) · [(x₂, y₂, z₂) + (x₃, y₃, z₃)] = (x₁, y₁, z₁) · (x₂, y₂, z₂) + (x₁, y₁, z₁) · (x₃, y₃, z₃)

    Benefits of Dot Product Calculator

    Dot product calculators offer several advantages, including:

    1. Efficiency: Manually calculating dot products can be time-consuming and error-prone, especially when dealing with complex vectors or multiple calculations. A dot product calculator can quickly and accurately compute dot products for any two vectors.
    2. Accuracy: Manual calculations are susceptible to errors, such as misplacing decimal points or overlooking vector components. A dot product calculator eliminates human error and ensures precise results.
    3. Visualizing Vector Relationships: Dot product calculators can provide visual representations of the vectors and their dot product, which can help visualize the relationships between vectors and understand their alignment.
    4. Problem-Solving Tool: Dot product calculators are valuable tools for solving various problems in physics, engineering, computer graphics, and machine learning, where understanding vector relationships is crucial.
    5. Real-World Applications: Dot product calculations have wide-ranging applications in various domains, including mechanics, electromagnetism, graphics rendering, and machine learning algorithms.

    Facts about the Dot Product

    1. The dot product is a measure of similarity between vectors. A larger dot product indicates that the vectors are more aligned, while a smaller dot product indicates that the vectors are more orthogonal (perpendicular).
    2. The dot product is zero when two vectors are orthogonal. Orthogonal vectors are perpendicular to each other, and their dot product reflects this lack of alignment.
    3. The dot product is used in various applications, including:
      • Calculating the work done by a force: The work done by a force is equal to the dot product of the force vector and the displacement vector.
      • Finding the angle between two vectors: The angle between two vectors can be calculated using the cosine of the dot product.
      • Projecting one vector onto another vector: The projection of one vector onto another vector is determined using the dot product.


    1. Linear Algebra: A Modern Introduction by Gilbert Strang (2018)
    2. Elements of Linear Algebra by Howard Anton and Chris Rorres (2011)
    3. Vector Analysis: Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems by Murray R. Spiegel (1991)


    Dot product calculators are powerful tools that simplify dot product calculations, ensure accuracy, and enhance understanding of vector relationships. They are widely used in various fields and are crucial in solving problems and making decisions based on vector information. By understanding the concept of the dot product and utilizing dot product calculators, individuals can improve their problem-solving abilities and gain a deeper understanding of vector concepts.

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