## Concepts

A basic calculator is a tool that is used to perform basic arithmetic operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Basic calculators can also be used to calculate more complex expressions, such as percentages and square roots.

## Formulae

The following are some of the basic formulae that are used in calculators:

**Addition:**

```
a + b = c
```

Where:

- a and b are the numbers being added
- c is the sum of a and b

**Subtraction:**

```
a - b = c
```

Where:

- a is the minuend
- b is the subtrahend
- c is the difference of a and b

**Multiplication:**

```
a * b = c
```

Where:

- a and b are the factors
- c is the product of a and b

**Division:**

```
a / b = c
```

Where:

- a is the dividend
- b is the divisor
- c is the quotient of a and b

**Percentage:**

```
percentage = (part / whole) * 100
```

Where:

- percentage is the percentage of the whole
- part is the part that is being considered
- whole is the whole

## Benefits

There are many benefits to using a basic calculator. Some of the benefits include:

**Convenience:**Basic calculators are very convenient to use. They are small, portable, and easy to use.**Accuracy:**Basic calculators are very accurate. They can perform calculations with a high degree of accuracy.**Speed:**Basic calculators can perform calculations very quickly. This can be helpful for solving complex problems or for performing large numbers of calculations.**Affordability:**Basic calculators are very affordable. They can be purchased for a relatively low price.

## Interesting facts

Here are some interesting facts about basic calculators:

- The first mechanical calculator was invented in 1642 by Blaise Pascal.
- The first electronic calculator was invented in 1961 by Jack Kilby.
- The first handheld calculator was invented in 1971 by Texas Instruments.
- Today, basic calculators are used by people all over the world for a variety of purposes, including education, business, and personal use.

## References

Here are some scholarly references on basic calculators:

**The History of the Calculator**by Ivor Grattan-Guinness (2015)**The Mathematics of Calculators**by Willard L. Miranker (1990)**The Science of Calculators**by David R. Smith (2000)

## Applications

Basic calculators are used in a variety of applications, including:

**Education:**Basic calculators are used by students of all ages to learn and practice arithmetic operations.**Business:**Basic calculators are used by businesses of all sizes to perform a variety of tasks, such as calculating sales totals, inventory levels, and payroll.**Personal use:**Basic calculators are used by individuals for a variety of personal tasks, such as calculating budgets, grocery bills, and travel expenses.

## Conclusion

Basic calculators are a valuable tool that can be used for a variety of purposes. They are convenient, accurate, fast, and affordable. Basic calculators are used by people all over the world in a variety of settings, including education, business, and personal use.