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Cat in a cardboard egg
Operators in C
Following up my notes on Data Types and Variables in C here are notes on operators in C.
An operator is a symbol that represents a mathematical or logical operation. An operator effects operands.
C provides a number of operators.
Some arithmetic operators include,
+

*
/
%
%
is the most exciting of the list, it is called modulo and it returns the remainder after division. Of note, modulo can only be used on integers
while the others can be used on any number.
This group of arithmetic operators are called âbinary arithmetic operators.â
There are also unary operators, or operators that work on just 1 operand.
++

These increment or decrement the value of the operand by 1. These work on both integers and floating point numbers.
Their behavior changes based on their position relative to the operand. E.g.
b = a++
Postincrement A by 1.
b = ++a
Here, preincrement.
int a, b;
a = 0;
b = a++;
// => a is 1
// => b is 0
a = 0;
b = ++a;
// => a is 1
// => b is 1
Preincrement is preformed before assignment to a new variable, while postincrement is preformed after assignment to a new variable.
Next up, assignment operators, or, relational operators.
These are operators that check for a relationship between two operands and return either 1 (true), or 0 (false). They always return int
s, but can compare numbers or characters.
These operators include,
==
!=
>
<
>=
<=
Logical operators come from boolean algebra.
&&

!
&&
is an operation of conjunction — intersection.

is an operation of union.
!
is an operation of exclusion.
In boolean algebra variables can only be assigned either true or false values. In C, 1 or 0.
Truth table!
x  y  x && y  x  y  !x 

0  0  0  0  1 
1  0  0  1  0 
0  1  0  1  1 
1  1  1  1  0 
Each row shows a possible combination of values.
!
is unique among the the logical operators because it is actually a unary operator, taking only 1 operand.
The result of a boolean operator is always an int
, either 0 or 1. 0 is false. 1 (or any non0 number) is true.
boolean operators pair nicely with the bool
data type if you are using C99 or newer.
Bitwise operators allow for the direct manipulation of bits. This is useful when working with memory addresses. Theyâre a wee bit complicated, but allow for extremely efficient operations.
The operators include,
&

^
~
<<
>>
These match the logical operators, which preform boolean operation on an entire number. Bitwise operators also preform boolean operation, but rather than doing so on a single number, they do so on every single bit of the operandsâŚbit by bit.
This means that if you had 2 operands, A
and B
like so,
a = 10101010
b = 00001111
Where c = a & b
The bitwise & would check against each bit so that c = 000010101
. This is, at first blush, admittedly a little baffling. To make matters a wee bit more confusing, shifting focus to >>
and <<
, the right and left shift operators.
b = a >> n
This shifts the bits in a
to the ârightâ by n
steps, so b = a >> 3
would shift the bits of a
by 3 steps.
If a
started as 11001100
it would finish as 00011001
, with 0âs being introduced to the left as the bits are shifted over. Another way of thinking about this is that b
is a
, but missing the 3 least significant bits.
1 << 0 = 1
1 << 1 = 2
1 << 2 = 4
1 << 3 = 8
The result is the same as multiplying the leading operand (here, 1) by 2 for each shifted bit, e.g.Â 1 << 1 = 2
can be thought of as 1 * 2
, and 1 << 2 = 4
thought of as 1 * 2 * 2
, a*2^n
.
On the other hand, shifting right is dividing by 2 for each shifted bit, a/2^n
.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdint.h>
int main (void)
{
uint8_t a = 12; // 0000 1100
uint8_t b = 5; // 0000 0101
// A & B > 0000 0100 = 4
// A  B > 0000 1101 = 13
// A ^ B > 0000 1001 = 9
// A << 1 > 0001 1000 = 24
// A >> 1 > 0000 0110 = 6
printf("A = %d\n", a);
printf("B = %d\n", b);
printf("A & B = %d\n", a & b);
printf("A  B = %d\n", a  b);
printf("A ^ B = %d\n", a ^ b);
printf("A << 1 = %d\n", a << 1);
printf("A >> 1 = %d\n", a >> 1);
return 0;
}
Bitwise operators are frequently used with bitmasks.
Using the bitwise &
operator, two different bitmasks can be defined, one for bit clearing (if the bitmask is 0) and one for bit testing (if the bitmask is 1).
The bitwise 
operator allows for a bitmask useful for bit setting, where, if a bitmask is 1, the result is 1.
Finally, the bitwise ^
operator allows for a bitmask that works as a toggle, switching the value of a bit from 1 to 0 or 0 to 1.
But how does this actually work? How can one actually preform bit manipulation? What if youâd like to set the Nth bit — set the bit in the 6th position to 1, for instance.
To do this use the bitwise 
with a bitmask set to 1 in the 6th position of the bit.
result = date  0b01000000; // the mask is a binary literal
// where the bit in the 6th position is set to 1
Of courseâŚthis is grossly impractical and a pain in the butt to read.
Instead, create a bitmask using the <<
operator!
result = data  (1 << 6);
Thisâll set the bit in position 6 to 1, and all others to 0.
A similar process works for clearing the Nth bit. To set the bit at the 5th position to 0 use the bitwise &
with a mask set to 0 for the bit weâd like to reset.
result = data & ~(1 << 5);
Here, making use of the <<
operator again, creating a bitmask set to 1 everywhere but the 5th bit.
NOTE! Since ~
is outside of the parentheses inside of which the left shift is calculated the compliment operation happens after the bits are shifted. Shift followed by compliment.
Next, how to select a subset of bits, e.g.Â select the bits from position 3  5.
To start, shift the bits from position 3 to position 0. In other words, shift right by 3 bits.
Now to select the bits in positions 0, 1, and 2. Bitwise &
with a bitmask where those same positions are all set to 1 will allow for this.
Put together, this looks like this,
result = (data >> 3) & 0b111;
To be totally honest I find a lot of this bitlevel stuff baffling. In the programming stuff I do on the day to day Iâve never had to reach for these tools — this may be because they arenât needed for what I do, or because I donât understand them enough to even realize when I should be reaching for them đ¤ˇââď¸
Assignment operators are used to assign a value to a variable. The simplest is =
. There are other assignment operators, though, like the compound assignment operators,
+=
=
*=
/=
%=
a += b
is the same as a = a + b
, and a *= b
is the same as a = a * b
and so on.
There are also compound forms of the bitwise operators,
&=
=
^=
>>=
<<=
These work the same as the previous compound operators.
An entirely different beast when it comes to operators is the sizeof
operator. The sizeof
operator returns the number of bytes an operand takes up in memory. The size is determined by the operandâs type, and is known at compiletime, not runtime. The result will be an integer constant, and the operand can be a variable, a basic or a derived datatype, or even an expression.
The type of the returned data is of type size_t
. The number of bytes available to size_t
varies from compiler to compiler. The sizeof
operator is useful because it allows one to avoid the hardcoding of certain fixed values into a program, instead, they can be determined from the data itself. This leads to more portable code.
No conversation about operators would be complete without discussing type conversion. C is strongly typed, but that doesnât mean data is stuck forever and always as a specific type after initial declaration. The cast operator allows for the conversion of one data type to another. Be warned, sometimes casting from one type to another can result in a loss of some information because not all data types have the same size in memory, e.g.Â a char
is teeny tiny, while a long long
is pretty big.
Sometimes type conversion happens implicitly, the compiler takes the wheel! I think the most common scenario for this is integer promotion, where a char
, for instance, is âpromotedâ to an integer during certain mathematical operations. Similarly, when assigning a short int
to a long int
there is an implicit conversion, making the data type âwider.â
There is a hierarchy to data conversion,
int // smallest
unsigned int
long int
unsigned long int
long long int
unsigned long long int
float
double
long double // largest
Implicit conversions can only apply âupwards,â e.g.Â a data type can only be cast to a âlargerâ type. To convert âdownwardsâ an explicit conversion must be used.
A totally fabricated example of implicit conversion:
#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
int a = 1;
long int b = 2;
double c = 3.3;
b = b + a; // implicit conversion: a is promoted to a long int
c = c * b; // implicit conversion: b is promoted to a double
return 0;
}
But wait! There are more operators!?
The ternary operator, the reference operator, the dereference operator, the array reference operator, the member selection operator, and the member selection operator for pointers!
â ď¸â ď¸â ď¸â ď¸â ď¸
Operators have precedence rules, too. They are strict, and never changing. The means that an expression is always evaluated in the same way, no matter what.
Parenthesis can be added to help make precedence a bit more obvious and to control precedence, too, because items in parenthesis get evaluated first. So, one can change evaluation order by adding parenthesis.
Here is a link to a chart that describes operator precedence in C.
I got a menu in the mail from a new Chinese food restaurant. Across the front of the menu, beneath the phone number is a note,
âOpen Christmas!â
I feel seen.
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I realized this morning why Iâm put off by super hero movies. They are fun, and Iâve always loved comic books, but the super hero movies of the last decade specifically, (I mean, beside being military propaganda) totally omit the potential future of any sort of utopia. They cannot envision their own undoing.
The stories are predicated on the super heros always needing something to be super against, despite having fantastical abilities to help usher in some sort of utopiaâŚthey end in punching. The zeitgeist is saturated by super heros that reinforce the systems they work to protect folks from and endless stories of dystopian collapse.
I guess I am looking for utopian stories these days — stories that can see and spell the way towards a better future.
What is Solar Punk?
Data Types and Variables in C
Iâve been writing a heap of Lua lately — this has lead to my becoming interested, again, in C. Here are some ancient notes I dug up on the most basics of data types and variables in C.
All of a computerâs memory is comprised of bits. A sequence of 8 bits forms a byte. A group of bytes (typically 4 or 8) form a word. Each word is associated with a memory address. The address increases by 1 with each byte of memory.
In C, a byte is an object that is as big as the smallest addressable unit.
Bytes are the minimum addressable, 8 bit wide unit.
A variable is a container for data. A variable is a symbolic representation of a memory location, or address.
A variable is comprised of a few parts:
First, define the data type, then an identifier, and then, optionally, initialize the variable with some data.
int number_of_bananas = 124;
Here, int
is the data type, number_of_bananas
is the identifier and 124
is the data.
C is strongly typed, this means that the data type cannot be changed after it is declared. You can make the value immutable by turning it into a constant using the const
keyword.
const int number_of_bananas = 124;
A data type is a collection of compiletime properties, including:
 memory size and alignment
 set of valid values
 set of permitted operations
Some data types available in C include,
 Numbers (int, float, hex, etc.)
 Characters
 Strings
 Array
 Complex data types, like structs and pointers
Numbers and characters are called âfundamental data typesâ in C — all other data types are called âderived data typesâ because they are derived from the fundamental types.
Integers, int
, are any nonfractional numbers either negative or positive including 0. You would use an int
to describe the number of pets you have — you cannot have a fractional number of petsâŚunless youâve done something awful and/or are cosplaying as King Solomon.
int
s come in both signed and unsigned flavors. An int
can be negative or positive, while an unsigned int
can be 0 or positive, never negative. unsigned int
s are useful for when you need to express a very large positive value. So, if you were going to create a variable to represent the temperature in Fahrenheit, you would want to use an int
since the temperature in Fahrenheit can be negative, positive or exactly 0. While, if you were going to create a variable to represent the temperature in Kelvin you would probably want to use an unsigned int
since Kelvin starts at 0 and only goes up from 0.
You can define the unsigned int
data type using the keyword unsigned int
or just unsigned
.
Beside coming in signed and unsigned variants, int
also comes in different sizes â
short int
int
long int
long long int
These describe different byte sizes allotted to the value. These exist in unsigned
variants, too. See stdint.h
for waaaaay more on this.
Totally random aside! When displaying a variable you need to use the correct format specifier, so, if a plain olâ int
%d
whereas if a long int
%ld
. Now, if you wanna format the number a bit more, you can also include a width to help pad the number, e.g.Â %7d
will add 6 leading spaces before the number if it is 1 digit long, or 5 if the number is 2 digits long.
int the_number = 42;
printf("The Answer to life, the universe and everything is %7d\n", the_number);
// The Answer to life, the universe and everything is 42
float
s and double
s can also include a number in their format string that defines their precision.
So, with 2 points of precision:
float pi = 3.14;
printf("%12.2f  PI\n", pi);
double pi2 = 314E2;
printf("%12.2e  PI\n", pi2);
// 3.14  PI
// 3.14e+00  PI
Or with 4!
float pi = 3.14;
printf("%12.4f  PI\n", pi);
double pi2 = 314E2;
printf("%12.4e  PI\n", pi2);
// 3.140000  PI
//3.1400e+00  PI
While int
s represent discrete values floating point numbers (float
s) are used to represent any number, negative or positive, including 0 and decimals, e.g.Â 3.14
is a float
. This can also be written as 314E2
as a double
.
float pi = 3.14;
double pi2 = 314E2;
char
variables are represented numerically by an 8 bit signed integer (1 byte). This means that the available numeric range for char
is from 128 to 127. This is the range of the ASCII
table. BOOM, or from Wikipedia.
While char
ranges from 128
to 127
unsigned char
ranges from 0
to 255
.
A boolean
is a variable that can only take 1 of 2 values. Either true
or false
. C originally didnât have any booleans, instead false
was assumed to be 0
and anything other than 0
was considered to be true
. While modern C supports boolean data types, treating 0
as false
remains a common idiom. The boolean
data type was introduced in the C99 standard.
An enumeration, or enum
is a list of constants. It is useful for when you want to select exactly 1 option from a list of predefined values. Behind the scenes, enum
s are nothing more than numbersâŚthis makes sense for a data type called an enumeration. enums
return an index, not an identifier, e.g.Â
enum Menu {
COFFEE, // 0
JUICE, // 1
WAFFLES, // 2
};
enum menu order = JUICE;
printf("The order: %d\n", order);
// The order: 1
If you want to explicitly set an index on an enum
option you can. Note that the numbers of the options picks up from whatever you defined.
enum months
{
JAN = 1,
FEB,
MAR,
APR,
MAY,
JUN,
JUL,
AUG,
SEP,
OCT,
NOV,
DEC,
};
The above ensure that the months are numbered in a sane wayâŚnot starting from 0.