**Instructions:**

- Enter a city and country in the "Enter Location" field to get sunrise and sunset times.
- Click "Get Times" to calculate and display the times for the next 7 days.
- Hover over the table rows to highlight them for better readability.
- Click "Clear" to reset the input field and results.
- Click "Copy to Clipboard" to copy the results to the clipboard.

Date | Sunrise | Sunset |
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## Introduction

The concept of calculating sunrise and sunset times is integral to various fields, including astronomy, navigation, agriculture, and daily life scheduling. The ability to predict when the sun will rise and set is invaluable for planning outdoor activities, determining daylight hours for crop cultivation, and celestial observation.

## The Concept

The tool “Sunrise Sunset Times” is designed to predict the times at which the sun will rise and set at a specific location on Earth for a given date. This concept relies on the Earth’s rotation and its axial tilt, which causes the apparent movement of the sun across the sky.

## Formulae for Sunrise and Sunset Calculation

### Solar Declination (δ)

Solar declination is a crucial parameter in calculating sunrise and sunset times. It represents the angle between the rays of the sun and the plane of the Earth’s equator. The formula for calculating solar declination is:

**δ = arcsin(sin(ε) * sin(θ))**

Where:

- δ is the solar declination.
- ε is the obliquity of the Earth’s axis (approximately 23.44 degrees).
- θ is the solar hour angle, which varies throughout the day.

### Sunrise and Sunset Times

The formulae to calculate sunrise and sunset times are based on the solar declination and the observer’s latitude (φ). For sunrise, the formula is:

**Sunrise = 12:00 PM – (1/15) * arccos((sin(φ) – sin(δ)) / (cos(φ) * cos(δ)))**

And for sunset:

**Sunset = 12:00 PM + (1/15) * arccos((sin(φ) – sin(δ)) / (cos(φ) * cos(δ)))**

These formulae consider the observer’s latitude and the solar declination to estimate the times of sunrise and sunset.

## Example Calculations

Let’s assume we want to calculate the sunrise and sunset times for a location with a latitude of 40 degrees North on a specific date. We also need to find the solar declination for that date. For this example, let’s use a date of June 21st, which is the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere.

- Calculate Solar Declination (δ):
- ε (Obliquity of Earth’s Axis) ≈ 23.44 degrees
- θ (Solar Hour Angle) = 0 (for sunrise)
- Use the formula:
**δ = arcsin(sin(23.44) * sin(0)) ≈ 23.44 degrees**

- Calculate Sunrise and Sunset:
- φ (Latitude) = 40 degrees
- Use the formulae for sunrise and sunset mentioned earlier:
**Sunrise ≈ 5:30 AM****Sunset ≈ 8:30 PM**

So, on June 21st, at a latitude of 40 degrees North, the sunrise is approximately at 5:30 AM, and the sunset is around 8:30 PM.

## Real-World Use Cases

### Agriculture and Farming

Farmers rely on sunrise and sunset times to plan their agricultural activities. Knowing the exact daylight hours helps optimize crop growth, irrigation, and harvesting schedules. Additionally, it aids in determining the duration of daylight for specific crops, which is vital for their overall health and productivity.

### Navigation

In navigation, particularly for sailors and aviators, sunrise and sunset times are essential for calculating twilight, which influences visibility conditions. This information aids in planning safe journeys and ensuring proper navigation, especially during critical phases such as takeoff and landing.

### Outdoor Activities and Recreation

People planning outdoor activities like hiking, camping, or photography outings benefit from accurate sunrise and sunset predictions. These times determine the available daylight for their activities, allowing them to plan their adventures and capture the best lighting conditions.

### Astronomy

Astronomers use sunrise and sunset times to decide when celestial objects are visible in the night sky. These times help plan observation sessions and avoid daylight interference when observing celestial events such as meteor showers, eclipses, and planetary transits.

## Conclusion

The tool “Sunrise Sunset Times” plays a pivotal role in various aspects of our lives, from agriculture and navigation to outdoor recreation and astronomy. It relies on fundamental concepts of solar declination, latitude, and Earth’s axial tilt to provide accurate predictions of when the sun will rise and set at a specific location. These predictions have real-world applications that affect daily routines, safety, and even scientific pursuits. By understanding the underlying concepts and formulae, we can appreciate the significance of this tool in our modern world.

## References

- Meeus, Jean. (1991).
*Astronomical Algorithms*. Willmann-Bell, Inc. - Duffett-Smith, Peter. (1988).
*Practical Astronomy with your Calculator*. Cambridge University Press. - Reda, Ibrahim, and Andreas Andreas. (2004).
*Solar Position Algorithm for Solar Radiation Applications*. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). - USDA. (2022).
*Agricultural Research Service – Plant Hardiness Zone Map*. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).

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